Disclaimer: People reading health related information on cleanairtas.com should work out what is best for them and act accordingly.
BEWARE: Not all P2 respirators are the same!
Not all masks give protection against viruses.
Surgical masks are primarily made to stop moisture or particles going outwards; they are not really designed to filter air coming in.
It is claimed Nano-Silver Filters actually kill viruses
Nano-silver can transform protein expression and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). This damages the DNA of germs and kills them. Nano-silver can kill a wide range of germs. Medical grade nano-silver coatings eliminate 99% of all airborne bacteria and viruses.
COVID-19 transmission messages should hinge on science
"The precautionary principle suggests we should approach this organism as we would any novel highly transmissible respiratory disease-as a contact, droplet and airborne disease, but with one important caveat:
Short-range aerosol transmission is also a strong possibility."
Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1
"Our results indicate that aerosol and fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is plausible, since the virus can remain viable and infectious in aerosols for hours and on surfaces up to days (depending on the inoculum shed)."
Some 'pandemic' P2 respirators, 3M-8210 or 3M-8110s, from the national emergency medical stockpile were given out as a result of the bushfires.
On the 22 January 2020 and in the face of a possible pandemic - One million P2 masks were ordered as authorities respond to the Wuhan coronavirus
On 28 January 2020 The National Medical Stockpile has 12 million masks
Health Minister Greg Hunt said there was a national medical stockpile of 12 million masks which would be sent where they were needed.
Chief medical officer Brendan Murphy stressed there was no need for members of the public to wear masks?
Meanwhile, A top US health official says the US needs 300 million face masks for healthcare workers
“Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar said the US needs at least 300 million face masks for healthcare workers as the country braces for the rapid spread of the coronavirus. Azar said the US already has 30 million but needs 270 million more.
N95 respirators are not the best way for everyday people to prevent infection because they can’t fully filter out the airborne coronavirus particles, but they are recommended for healthcare professionals”?
Australian Government secures additional 54 million face masks to contain coronavirus outbreak 8 March 2020 Media release
"A combination of surgical masks, P2 and N95 respirators have been secured for the National Emergency Medical Stockpile, which will be available for medical and aged care professionals to care for patients with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19."
Thousands of masks released from emergency stockpile
23 hours ago - Deputy Chief Medical Officer Dr Paul Kelly this afternoon announced 260,000 masks have been distributed to primary medical networks.
If you are looking for a respirator mask to help protect against a virus you might like to try the P2 3M-1860
"P2 filters may also help reduce breathing in pathogenic biological airborne particulates such as influenza virus."
This respirator requires you to do a fit-check.
Study highlights ease of spread of COVID-19 viruses
"The findings confirm that COVID-19 is spread simply through breathing, even without coughing, he said. They also challenge the idea that contact with contaminated surfaces is a primary means of spread, Osterholm said."
Is the air quality on a plane ok?
"As many recent air quality studies have shown, the cabin is a healthful environment, meeting all applicable safety and health regulations and standards."
Important studies people need to know about:
Coronavirus looks different in kids than in adults
"Coronavirus looks different in kids than in adults
Largest study to date suggests infants may be vulnerable to critical illness after all -- and that children may play a ‘major role’ in spread of pathogen"
Army deployed to help Australia’s only mask factory
Australian Defence Force soldiers have been deployed to help Australia's only mask manufacturer, Med-Con, near Shepparton.
Hospital Workers Make Masks From Office Supplies
"Providence infection control and quality experts designed prototype face-shields with off-the-shelf materials: marine-grade vinyl, industrial tape, foam and elastic. Monday night they bought supplies at craft stores and Home Depot. On Tuesday, about 20 administrative staff members at the health system’s corporate headquarters volunteered to work an assembly line in a large conference room, putting together 500 home-spun face shields"
Mass masking in the COVID-19 epidemic
"The WHO recommends against wearing masks in community settings because of lack of evidence. However, absence of evidence of effectiveness should not be equated to evidence of ineffectiveness, especially when facing a novel situation with limited alternative options."
"Furthermore, transmission from asymptomatic infected individuals has been documented for COVID-19, and viral load is particularly high at early disease stage. Masking, as a public health intervention, would probably intercept the transmission link and prevent these apparently healthy infectious sources."
Lancet study recommends masks:
"In addition, vulnerable populations, such as older adults and those with underlying medical conditions, should wear face masks if available. Universal use of face masks could be considered if supplies permit."
Nano-filter extends life of masks worn to avoid coronavirus
A research team in South Korea has developed a nano-filter that could extend the life of face masks being worn extensively because of coronavirus (Covid-19).
Q: Should we be reconsidering the role of masks given that an “absence of evidence of effectiveness should not be equated to evidence of ineffectiveness”?
A: “...we don’t have the supply chain for everyone to have them and the hospitals need them.” - Professor Bruce Thompson, Dean of Health at Swinburne University.
After reading the studies below, coronavirus can be spread by aerosols, not just by droplets or touch. Coronavirus can live in the air for 3 hours.
Viability in air:
"A very recent study found that SARS-CoV-2 aerosols remain viable for up to 3 hours, which is similar to the viability of SARS-CoV in air and MERS-CoV.
This is adequate time for exposure, inhalation, and infection to occur both near and far from a source."
Therefore, cleanairtas believes suitable respirator masks or face coverings (worn by BOTH those infected AND those unaffected out in the community) do have a place in preventing the spread of this virus.
This virus is like electricity, you cannot see it in the early stages but if it gets hold of you it could kill you and in turn kill others. We all have to behave and act responsibly and if this means us all wearing a mask or face covering to prevent potential transmission to ourselves and others the better for all.
As at the 24/3/2020 - N95 respirators and surgical masks were available on eBay.
Search on 3M-8210, find a good price and you could have them in less than 10 days.
If you have, or could have the virus (and you will never know in the early days of infection) a non-vented (non-valved) N95 respirator is a must.
A valve assists in quick exhalation of CO2, and heat, from your mask making it more comfortable to wear, but is a no no if you have the virus because you will expel; that too!
Only wear a vented respirator if you are absolutely sure you have not been near an infection source in the last two weeks, or have had a negative test.
A respirator may provide protection against multiple modes of transmission, including droplet, airborne and hand-to-mouth/nose transmission.
Surgical type masks may not stop you catching the virus. They do not mate-to-the-face of infected people; they do not mate-to-the-face of uninfected people.
Surgical type masks do stop you touching your face which is good, but by design they cannot provide the same sort of protection as a N95/P2 respirator when fitted properly.
See the difference between surgical masks and N95/P2 respirators HERE
However, as we have heard there is a very clear and concise message on the usefulness of face masks or face coverings to reduce transmission of coronavirus.
Japan and others wear masks and their COVID-19 levels are down - see chart below...
These figures will change as time goes on
Note: 17/3/2020: Distribution of PPE through PHNs: Tranche 2
‘PPE is being rationed at every level of distribution as the world faces a global shortage due to the coronavirus pandemic, exacerbated by the bushfire crisis in Australia. Professor Murphy said priority would be placed on ensuring PPE for ‘first responders’, and that the Government is expecting some additional masks will arrive by the end of April.
This map March 21 2020. Latest data from Worldometers HERE
COVID-19: Face masks at LGH could be re-used if demand spikes
"Staff at the Launceston General Hospital could be forced to decontaminate and re-use face masks in the event of a spike in demand for personal protective equipment. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues unabated, the Tasmanian Health Service is considering the option of decontaminating and re-using P2 face masks at the hospital should the need arise."
Letter to our Premier and Health Minister
See also 90 tonnes of critical medical supplies arrive from China
Coronavirus survives on surfaces.
Here’s what it means for handling money, food and more
"They advise running produce under fresh water is sufficient, and the use of soap is not recommended. Hands should be washed with soap after touching produce."
Elon Musk: 250,000 N95 Masks For Hospitals Tomorrow
“We have 250k N95 masks. Aiming to start distributing those to hospitals tomorrow night. Should have over 1000 ventilators by next week.”
Limited supply of PPE in Australia.
Depletion of the National Medical Stockpile. Cancellation of elective surgery.
"On 25 March 2020 AHPPC released a statement recommending the cancellation of elective surgery. This is a measure to respond to the continued depletion of the National Medical Stockpile and the limited supply of PPE in Australia."
But see how many planes and people are moving about ?
April10, 2020 You won't see many coming into Tasmania now
April 1, 2020 - Over 1 million N95 equivalent face masks + 400,000 surgical masks.
"The first plane of critical medical supplies from the world’s largest producer, China, is to depart from Shanghai today (Australian Western Standard Time).
Aiming to resolve Australia’s extreme shortage of PPE (personal protective equipment), two more flights are due to arrive on Friday and Saturday this week, together bringing more than 600 cubic meters weighing over 90 tonnes of medical supplies."
The usefulness of face masks and why we must wear them.
But remember fitted masks are just one way to prevent the virus spreading.
We need proper ventilation, sanitizing, negative pressure rooms, air purifiers, contact tracing, scan-in apps...
WHO considers changing guidance on wearing face masks
The World Health Organization is considering changing its guidance on whether people should wear face masks in public, prompted by new evidence that suggests doing so could help contain the pandemic.
Czechs facing up to COVID-19 crisis by making masks mandatory
A regulation issued on 18 March made it compulsory to wear either a surgical face mask or other mouth and nose-covering apparel when in public, one of the few countries in the world to issue such a demand.
The Facebook page “Czechs sew face masks” now has 36,000 followers, and posts daily videos showing people how to sew their own masks from t-shirts and other household fabric, while the page also allows users to advertise their own handicraft for sale online.
US moves toward broader promotion of masks.
The Trump administration is formalizing new guidance to recommend that many, if not almost all, Americans wear face coverings when leaving home, in an effort to slow the spread of the new coronavirus. Officials would suggest that non-medical masks, T-shirts or bandannas be used to cover the nose and mouth when outside the home. Medical-grade masks, particularly short-in-supply N95 masks, would be reserved for those dealing directly with the sick.
Fauci 'puzzled' by how virus affects healthy people differently.
“The top U.S. infectious disease official says medical experts are no closer to figuring out why some seemingly healthy people infected by the new coronavirus develop only mild or no symptoms but others become very sick.”
Anyone may be a considered a carrier, whether they have symptoms or not.
In response to recent studies, the CDC on Wednesday changed how it was defining the risk of infection for Americans. It essentially says anyone may be a considered a carrier, whether they have symptoms or not.
Scientist’s plea for Australians to wear masks Face coverings.
Jeremy Howard, an Australian researcher who works at the University of San Francisco, was speaking on the Today show this morning.
He has started a campaign called Masks4All that aims to encourage people to wear masks in public despite current advice that they are of little use unless someone is infected.
Lets hope it doesn't get to this in Tasmania
How hospitals can decontaminate and reuse scarce N95 masks - Stanford News
“As health workers and first responders in the United States try to stem a pandemic without adequate protective gear, health officials are forced to consider a stopgap - decontaminating and reusing N95 masks to shield those whose jobs expose them to the virus that causes COVID-19.”
N95DECON releases study of three approaches to P2/N95 decontamination for the COVID-19 pandemic
Australia has AS/NZS standards for single-use respirators and re-use is not included.
Note the strong Disclaimer attached to this study
CDC advises Americans to wear non-medical masks. = Face coverings.
"The White House says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is recommending that Americans cover their faces when leaving the home, especially around other people. The latest guidance suggests that Americans use makeshift coverings, such as T-shirts, scarves or bandanas to cover their noses and mouths. Medical-grade masks, especially N95 masks, are to be reserved for those on the front lines of trying to contain the pandemic. The policy change comes as public health officials are concerned that those without symptoms can spread the virus which causes COVID-19."
Masks may be good, but the messaging around them has been very bad
That’s one of the arguments in favour of masks for everyone: if people who aren’t visibly sick can still spread the virus, asking everybody to wear a mask may block their virus-laden exhalations from entering a space. In addition, if the tiny droplets full of virus linger in the air, wearing a mask might stop people from breathing them in.
We are constantly being told NOT to wear facemasks for COVID-19.
The World Health Organization (WHO) is telling the general public not to wear face masks. Why?
The main reason according to authorities is because there is a shortage of masks and respirators and these are required for front-line workers.
Agreed, but face masks for front-line workers are supplied from our national medical stockpile in Australia and people sourcing their own certified surgical masks or P2/N95 respirators should not reduce these numbers in any way for front-line workers.
To bolster the argument not to wear face masks it is wrongly being claimed masks are ineffective. If they are ineffective for the public then it follows they must be ineffective for front-line workers but this is not the case.
Both front-line workers and the general public must know how to put standards approved P2/N95 respirators on, correctly take them off, and to perform face-fit checks to get the best protection but not everybody is trained how to do this.
This is what is involved.....
Study - Coronavirus can travel much farther than previously thought
The scientists based their findings on a Jan. 22 case of a person with the virus who took a long-distance 48-seater bus ride - and ended up infecting 13 people total. Surveillance footage showed that the patient didn’t interact with others throughout the four-hour ride - but a couple of the people who became infected were sitting as far as six rows away, or about 15 feet, the researchers said.
Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19
Peak exhalation speeds can reach up to 33 to 100 feet per second (10-30 m/s), creating a cloud that can span approximately 23 to 27 feet (7-8 m). Protective and source control masks, as well as other protective equipment, should have the ability to repeatedly withstand the kind of high-momentum multiphase turbulent gas cloud that may be ejected during a sneeze or a cough and the exposure from them. Currently used surgical and N95 masks are not tested for these potential characteristics of respiratory emissions.
However, there is mounting evidence that just a simple face covering worn by the public can slow the spread of Covid-19.
Details can be found further down this page….
"Pandemic Infuenza Preparedness, Safe Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)"
This DVD is an educational tool that provides instruction on infection control precautions and the correct and safe use of personal protective equipment. It also outlines the correct procedures and available methods for the fit-testing of P2N95 high filtration masks. Individual chapters of the DVD can be downloaded for viewing from the above link:
Respiratory protection is the last line of defence whereas it should be the first!
Just to be clear:
We have heard the term PPE which refers broardly to any Personal Protection Equipment.
Face masks and respirators should be referred to as Respiratory Protection Equipment or RPE.
This page deals with RPE or Filtering Facepiece Respirators FFRs, and Face Coverings.
COVID-19 Respiratory Protection
Greg Hunt - Interview with Tara Brown on 60 Minutes
"...we've already distributed 11 million masks but we've just received, over the recent weeks, 30 million masks, and I can release that via you this evening, and that's replenished the stockpile...as well as making masks here in Australia. We expect, over the coming months to the end of the year, to make up to 200 million masks."
How coronavirus spread while supply orders lagged
An Associated Press review has found that the Trump administration squandered precious months before bolstering the federal stockpile of urgently needed medical supplies and equipment.
90 tonnes of medical supplies shipped to China
Mar 27, 2020 Exclusive video taken at Perth airport shows bulk surgical masks being airfreighted to China last month as it is revealed a Chinese company sent 90 tonnes of Australian supplies to Wuhan.
90 tonnes of critical medical supplies arrive from China
April 1, 2020 The first flight of supplies touched down in the State of Western Australia (WA) on Wednesday An additional two flights scheduled for Friday and Saturday will deliver a total of one million N95 equivalent face masks, 400,000 surgical masks, 2.3 million medical-grade gloves, 100,000 nasal swabs, 200,000 medical coveralls, 10,000 medical goggles, 5,000 touch-less thermometers and over 30 ICU grade ventilators.
Cloth masks better than nothing - but only if used correctly
“I suggest that cloth masks only be used in the general community, and people should have at least two and cycle them, so that each one can be washed and dried daily after use. Importantly, this advice is driven by informed common-sense, not research, but in these extraordinary times this is better than no advice at all or to have desperate health workers choosing not to wear a mask while working,” Professor MacIntyre says.
10/4/2020 - Now as a line of defence, masks are almost essential
Earlier this week, Austria made it compulsory for masks to be worn in supermarkets while Israel made it a blanket rule - when you're out, masks are on.
The same rule now applies in Sceaux, a small city near Paris. It became the first French municipality to make masks mandatory in public. The city of Nice is expected to follow next week.
April 9, 2020 - Tasmania
60 staff stood down at North West Regional Hospital, investigation continues
About 60 staff at the North West Regional Hospital have been stood down as an investigation into a coronavirus outbreak at the facility continues. A total of 23 cases are associated with the hospital cluster
Obama Warned The U.S. To Prepare For A Pandemic Back In 2014
"We have to put in place an infrastructure - not just here at home but globally - that allows us to see it quickly, isolate it quickly, respond to it quickly...". (Pres Obama 2014).
Doctors say ventilator machines are overused for Covid-19
"What’s driving this reassessment is a baffling observation about Covid-19: Many patients have blood oxygen levels so low they should be dead. But they’re not gasping for air, their hearts aren’t racing, and their brains show no signs of blinking off from lack of oxygen."
How Coronavirus Kills: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) & COVID-19 Treatment
This video illustrates how viruses such as the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can cause pneumonia or widespread lung inflammation resulting in ARDS.
Includes evidenced-based ARDS treatment breakthrough strategies: Low tidal volume ventilation, paralysis, and prone positioning.
Map: April 11, 2020
Covid-19 aerosols can travel 4meters, 13ft, and on shoes
"The coronavirus can travel through the air at least 13 feet - more than twice as far as social distancing guidelines, according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention."
Coronavirus can attack the immune system, scientists warn
"The coronavirus that causes Covid-19 may be able to kill the powerful immune cells that are supposed to kill the virus, scientists have warned.The surprise discovery, made by a team of researchers from Shanghai and New York, coincided with front-line doctors’ observation some patients of Covid-19 had a severely weakened immune system similar to that found in people infected with HIV."
April 14, 2020 - 5000 people in lockdown in Burnie, Tasmania
North West Regional Hospital emergency department set to reopen on Wednesday.
"We are focused on reestablishing the NWRH and North West Private Hospital as quickly as possible to make sure we have safe healthcare delivered to your community," Ms Courtney said. Three flights of ADF and AUSMAT personnel touched down at Burnie airport on Tuesday afternoon. From the ADF 40 defence staff and seven civilian medical professionals were deployed whose roles include general duties medical officers, emergency nurses, a pharmacist, a radiographer and an environmental health officer.
Face masks in public during the coronavirus pandemic
WHO's epidemic chief Mike Ryan recently said their was no specific evidence to suggest that the wearing of masks by the general population has any particular benefit.
"In fact, there's some evidence to suggest the opposite," he said, noting there are risks posed by improperly fitted masks or improperly putting one on or taking one off.
Coronavirus alert for nursing homes in Tasmanian outbreak zone
A Tasmanian healthcare worker who has tested positive for coronavirus has also worked shifts in three nursing homes, authorities say.
Contract tracing found that the person who was diagnosed on Wednesday had worked at two north west hospitals at the centre of the outbreak and had also completed shifts at the aged care facilities.
Public Health Services (PHS) is working with Melaleuca Nursing Home in East Devonport, Eliza Purton Home for the Aged in Ulverstone, and Coroneagh Park in Penguin to ensure they have infection controls in place.
Possible coronavirus drug identified by Melbourne scientists
The Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute’s Dr Kylie Wagstaff, who led the study, said the scientists showed that the drug, Ivermectin, stopped the SARS-CoV-2 virus growing in cell culture within 48 hours.
“We found that even a single dose could essentially remove all viral RNA by 48 hours and that even at 24 hours there was a really significant reduction in it,” Dr Wagstaff said.
Tasmanian hospitals caught in coronavirus storm
“During COVID-19, it is important hospitals have adequate resources to deliver services effectively,” the memo said. “To assist in this, investigations for the safe decontamination and reuse of P2 masks and the refilling of alcohol hand gel bottles are being undertaken … All used, undamaged and unsoiled P2 masks are to be collected in a clear plastic bag in each department…It was an alarming message because, as hospital staff knew, P2 masks are single use. No health policy recommends reusing disposable masks. The president of the Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association, Karen Booth, says workers are being told by their bosses to spray used masks with Glen 20 or soak them in bleach”.
By Rick Morton - The Saturday Paper.
If asked please provide your email address to read this disturbing article.
Wearing face masks in the community during the COVID-19 pandemic: altruism and solidarity
“Dismissing a low-cost intervention such as mass masking as ineffective because there is no evidence of effectiveness in clinical trials is in our view potentially harmful.” - The Lancet
58 million face masks arrive -18 April 2020 - Greg Hunt
"The Australian Government has now received 58 million protective face masks that will help provide essential protection for frontline health workers at risk of COVID-19.
The protective face masks have arrived ahead of the scheduled delivery date of the end of April, and in greater numbers than the 54 million previously predicted. They will allow for additional allocations to be released from the National Medical Stockpile to healthcare workers."
How does coronavirus kill? Clinicians trace a ferocious rampage through the body, from brain to toes
"As the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 surges past 2.2 million globally and deaths surpass 150,000, clinicians and pathologists are struggling to understand the damage wrought by the coronavirus as it tears through the body. They are realizing that although the lungs are ground zero, its reach can extend to many organs including the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, gut, and brain."
Caring for people with COVID-19
Supporting Australia’s healthcare professionals with continually updated, evidence-based clinical guidelines.
Search to find COVID-19 research here:
Find COVID-19 studies around the world
Find COVID-19 studies in Australia
Core outcomes for COVID -19 research
Click to view
Image courtesy of 3M Healthcare
Click above to read Respiratory Protection FAQ:
Technical Bulletin Feb 2020 Rev. 3
What Doctors on the Front Lines Wish They’d Known a Month Ago
April 14, 2020 - Ironclad emergency medical practices - about when to use ventilators, for example - have dissolved almost overnight.
Australia rejected huge offers for medical supplies
A major Australian company paid for masks in a 90-tonne cargo flight from the Chinese city of Wuhan, the epicentre of the coronavirus, and then tried to offload them to the Australian government for a profit.
Coronavirus drifts through the air in microscopic droplets - here’s the science of infectious aerosols
"Public health officials still don’t know whether direct contact, indirect contact through surfaces, or aerosols are the mainHYPERLINK "https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-3707-y" pathway of transmission for the coronavirus. But everything experts like myself know about aerosols suggests that they could be a major pathway of transmission."
Australian doctors on alert after Kawasaki disease in children linked to Covid-19
Kawasaki disease which can cause heart disease in children was identified 50 years ago, but little is known about what causes it. Now it has been linked to coronavirus.
Microvascular thrombi as a possible explanation for the severe hypoxaemia related to COVID-19
Studies have shown that some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure have preserved lung compliance, suggesting that processes other than alveolar damage might be involved in hypoxaemia related to COVID-19 pneumonia
There has been increasing attention on microvascular thrombi as a possible explanation for the severe hypoxaemia related to COVID-19
Proper collection of specimens is the most important step in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. A specimen that is not collected correctly may lead to false negative test results. Click on the above graphic to follow specimen collection guidelines.
Is this why some tests give wrong readings?
Click on the 4.5.2020 video above
A reality check on the use of face masks during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong
Despite the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into a pandemic, an ‘east-west’ divide remains between the recommendations of different health authorities on the use of face masks in the community. We respectfully differ from the WHO recommendation on its effectiveness. In our opinion, mass masking in the community is one of the key measures that controls transmission during the outbreak in Hong Kong and China. Moreover, it would be futile to convince individuals who experienced the SARS or swine flu outbreaks, not to wear face masks for protection.
COVID-19 on air pollution particles
The researchers collected 34 air samples of outdoor, airborne PM10 from an industrial site in Bergamo during a three-week period. They analyzed them for the RNA of COVID-19 virus with a highly specific viral gene and found it in almost all samples.
Reuse of N95 Respirators
Disinfection of N95 respirators by ionized hydrogen peroxide during pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARSCoV-2.
Further investigation into the disinfection of N95 respirators is warranted.
How many lives could have been saved if we had been told earlier
to wear face masks?
Is social distancing 1.5m enough to avoid coronavirus?
I personally think if you are worried as a parent or worried yourself you should wear a mask of some kind both to protect yourself and to protect others now that we are less concerned about the supply of masks for the health care system… public transport…wear masks 'cause it will reduce the risk.
HKU hamster research shows masks effective in preventing Covid-19 transmission
Tests on hamsters showed wearing surgical masks can significantly reduce the non-contact transmission of the deadly Covid-19 virus, especially when masks were worn by infected individuals, according to a study led by HKU infectious disease expert Prof Yuen Kwok-yung.
Sarah Cooper on COVID-19
How to medical - https://tinyurl.com/ydaqz8nr
How to strong death totals - https://tinyurl.com/y7fyoyrl
How to testing - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-ol9kvk7rc
How to Grief - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PrAXUJF_vgs
How to hydroxychloroquine - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dUUkpVpS_k
Should I take insulin? - https://twitter.com/sarahcpr/status/1265449852370108416
Click on the above graph to read the details
Disentangling the re-emerging controversy about medical facemasks from an epidemiological perspective
Wearing face masks may raise public awareness of improving personal hygiene behaviours, many of which have been proven to be effective in infection control.
The biggest direct benefit of face masks comes from asymptomatic patients without the knowledge of their health condition, or individuals with respiratory symptoms to wear face masks.
WRONG! Who makes this rubbish up?
Unless it is blocked there is no reduction in inhaled O2 while wearing a mask.
In each breath we only use a small amount of the inhaled O2, i.e. 4% to 5%. So again, unless the mask is blocked how do we get CO2 poisoning?
No, wearing a face mask does not cause carbon dioxide toxicity - RMIT ABC fact check
A history of the medical mask and the rise of throwaway culture:
Reusable masks were once an essential part of the medical arsenal. However, the industrial production and further research and development of reusable masks was largely halted with the transition towards disposable masks in the 1960s. Disposable masks and respirators will certainly remain an essential part of medical personal protective equipment in the future, since some of them possess specific filtration qualities designed for health-care situations. To avoid a shortage of masks during the next pandemic, one should look beyond the creation of large stockpiles of disposable face masks and consider the risks of the throwaway consumer culture applied to life-saving devices. Perhaps one day it might again be possible to say about protective face masks what medical researchers wrote in 1918: “A mask may be repeatedly washed and used indefinitely.”
Small droplet aerosols in poorly ventilated spaces and SARS-CoV-2 transmission
Transmission by aerosols of the small droplets studied here can only be prevented by use of high-performance face masks; a conventional surgical mask only stops 30% of the small aerosol droplets studied here for inhaled breath; for exhaled breath the efficacy is much better.
26 May 2020 - Which mask is the best? What should you avoid?
There are all sorts of options when picking a mask to help protect yourself and other people from picking up coronavirus.
But some masks can be expensive, and not every mask is equal.
Firstly, you have to wear it correctly. Secondly, you want to make sure it's doing what it is supposed to.
So what mask should you choose?
2 June 2020 - Lancet Voice latest findings:
Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection
“…new research on physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection, to find out the best approach to these vital virus control methods”.
7 June 2020 - WHO - Q & A: Masks and Covid-19
The WHO changes it mind on masks
Jun 12, 2020 - Face masks highly effective against Covid-19, new evidence suggests.
Three new studies from Germany, Britain and the United States have indicated face masks are
May 28, 2020 - A new perspective underscores the effectiveness of wearing a mask - even indoors, even if you’re staying six feet apart
Here’s some more bad news, from the authors: “Increasing evidence for SARS-CoV-2 suggests the [six feet] WHO recommendation is likely not enough under many indoor conditions where aerosols can remain airborne for hours, accumulate over time, and follow air flows over distances further than [six feet].”
Why are the authorities so slow to respond? This isn’t the first coronavirus. Time they got their act together after so many deaths
They obviously have never heard of the Precautionary Principle whilst the science catches up.
What has happened to common sense?
June 26, 2020 - Where Masks Aren’t Required, Virus Cases Have Gone Up
Sixteen states recommended, but do not require, its residents to wear masks in public.
In those states, new coronavirus cases have risen by 84% over the last two weeks.
In the 11 states that mandate wearing masks in public, new cases have fallen by 25% over the last two weeks
Face coverings save lives
Here, I am sure, you will see the shift from being told NOT to wear masks to being told, and even being ordered, to wear masks.
Authorities are so much in denial about aerial transmission
7.7.2020 - The World Health Organization (WHO) has downplayed airborne transmission of COVID-19 since the pandemic began but now more than 200 scientists are making a plea for action, warning people they aren't as protected as they may think.
The WHO's view has so far been that COVID-19 is spread predominantly through large respiratory droplets - the ones that come flying out of our mouths when we cough, sneeze and speak but then quickly fall to the ground.
The risk of airborne transmission has not been recognised by the WHO, except in some health care settings.
But now 239 scientists from 32 different countries and many different areas of science (including virology, aerosol physics and epidemiology) have penned an open letter urging the WHO to change their advice.
11.7.2020 - Now you can wear masks
The change of stance in Victoria came after the Australian Health Protection Principal Committee (AHPPC), the Australian Medical Association, and Victoria's chief health officer, Brett Sutton, all backed the move. Professor Sutton said face masks "aren't perfect" but made a "significant difference".
"When they are worn very broadly across a population where people can't distance that 1.5m then they can make a difference," he said.
"They can reduce transmission by up to two-thirds. That's a really important additional measure and we are trying to do absolutely everything in Victoria to drive transmission down."
He said "people will need to make their own masks" and indicated a "how-to" video would be released to the general public
More than 200 types of face masks have been dramatically withdrawn from sale
raising fears about their effectiveness. It comes as Victorians are being urged to wear face masks in crowded public places to protect themselves from coronavirus. SEE THE LIST
19.7.2020 - Wearing masks will now be made compulsory for people out in public in coronavirus-hit Melbourne and the adjacent Mitchell Shire from 11:59pm on Wednesday.
Mr Andrews says the new rule is "commonsense", "relatively simple" and about "embedding behaviour" to bring COVID-19 case numbers down.
"We're going to be wearing masks in Victoria and potentially in other parts of the country for a very long time," he warns.
From the start we were told no - now masks are all the go!
Why the experts now believe wearing a mask is effective - The Mckell Institute.
On the 19th July, Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews announced that residents in Metropolitan Melbourne and the Mitchell Shire will soon be required to wear face coverings in public or risk a fine. On the same day, the NSW Deputy chief medical officer Jeremy McAnulty called on residents to “redouble their efforts to stop the virus spreading” by wearing masks in public where social distancing is not possible while cases resulting from “community transmission continue to be reported”
Many countries around the world recommend that people wear masks in public as part of their strategy to curb the pandemic. We look at why some people do not wear masks and discuss what scientific evidence says about wearing them.
Masks are now compulsory - but how do we really feel about wearing them?
To mask or not to mask? UK Telegraph writers share their opinion about the new mandatory face coverings rule.
Many Comments down the bottom.
Particle sizes of infectious aerosols: implications for infection control
Studies of cough aerosols and of exhaled breath from patients with various respiratory infections have shown striking similarities in aerosol size distributions, with a predominance of pathogens in small particles (<5 µm).
Face masks - the million dollar question
Ten key questions on the science of face masks, as experts hunt for consensus.
Jul 27, 2020 • Audio file 14m 56s
6.6.2020 - CSIRO launches Australia's first accredited surgical face mask testing facility.
To gain NATA's accreditation, the CSIRO facility underwent rigorous on-site assessments to ensure it could provide tests that show single-use surgical masks adequately filter biological particles, resist against blood penetration and enable the wearer to breathe comfortably. Manufacturers that pass all three tests will meet both Australian and international standards and can be registered on the Australian Register for Therapeutic Goods.
Respirators and Surgical Masks: A Comparison - 3M
A decision tree highlights potential considerations for the selection of respirators verses surgical/procedure masks.
Surgical/procedure masks are intended to help put a barrier between the wearer and the work environment or sterile field. They may help keep spit and mucous generated by the wearer from reaching a patient or medical equipment. They can also be used as a fluid barrier to help keep blood splatter from reaching the wearer’s mouth and nose. And, where applicable, they are FDA cleared as medical devices and can therefore be used in surgery in the U.S.
However, surgical/procedure masks cannot provide certified respiratory protection unless they are also designed, tested, and government-certified as a respirator. If a wearer wants to reduce inhalation of smaller, inhalable particles (those smaller than 100 microns), they need to obtain and properly use a government-certified respirator, such as a NIOSH-approved N95 filtering facepiece particulate respirator.
Australia is well into the COVID pandemic. It is now August.
7 August 2020 - Dr Nick Coatsworth, Australian Govt. Dept. of Health
And now “…you may be asked to wear a mask…”
‘A Smoking Gun’: Infectious Coronavirus Retrieved From Hospital Air
A research team at the University of Florida succeeded in isolating live virus from aerosols collected at a distance of seven to 16 feet from patients hospitalized with Covid-19 - farther than the six feet recommended in social distancing guidelines.
The findings, posted online last week, have not yet been vetted by peer review, but have already caused something of a stir among scientists. “If this isn’t a smoking gun, then I don’t know what is,” Dr. Marr
This public health poster was part of a government campaign in New South Wales to limit the spread of the deadly Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-19, in which about 12,000 Australians died, 6300 of them in New South Wales. Soldiers returning from World War I and infected people were quarantined, wearing masks in public places was made compulsory, schools were closed, many public activities were banned or restricted and pharmacy prices were regulated.
This illustration by children's illustrator and author May Gibbs (1877-1969) uses familiar characters from her children's books to encourage readers, especially children, to wear masks to reduce the spread of the deadly infection. Gibbs was one of the most popular children's writers of the time. Her characters, such as bush babies and banksia men, were inspired by the uniqueness of the Australian bush and appealed to adults as well as children.
The Spanish flu was so called because the outbreak was first noticed in Spain, in 1918, and it killed 8 million in Spain alone. The pandemic spread across the world in three waves-beginning in 1918 and 1919 with the return of soldiers from World War I. Mainly affecting healthy young people aged 15-35 years, the flu killed between 20 and 50 million people worldwide, more than the total number killed in the war.
Public health campaigns before the age of radio and television used the poster as an effective advertising medium. Government bodies made wide use of posters for various campaigns, including war service recruitment, public health and safety, and promotion of railway travel, but they were used most widely in public health campaigns. This poster was produced as a lithograph, as were most posters of the era.
K9 Dog Mask beats poor air quality
The Good Air Team is solving the problem of extreme air pollution by providing dogs with an alternative to poor air quality. The K9 Mask® is specifically designed for the shape of a dog's muzzle. Each K9 Mask® size has adjustable neck and muzzle straps to fit various size dog breeds. The replaceable air filters used in the K9 Mask® have four-layers of air filtration to purify inhaled air. The filters are able to protect dogs using the CDC (U.S. Center for Disease Control) standards for toxic air filtration by using N95 (95% filtration of all non-oil-based air pollutants) with PM2.5 (particulate matter that is less than 2.5 microns in diameter) and activated carbon for absorbing toxic chemical particles. Using an innovative exhaust valve panting dogs are able to release exhaled air from the mask. The valve also releases heat to help keep panting dogs cooler.
COVID-19 is Transmitted Through Aerosols.
We Have Enough Evidence, Now It Is Time to Act
“…it seems clear that aerosols are more important when it comes to transmitting COVID-19 than we thought six months ago-and certainly more important than public health officials are currently making them out to be. The WHO and CDC, among others, must begin communicating the science suggesting aerosol spread of COVID-19-and the risk reduction strategies necessary as a result. If not, we hamper our ability to counter the growing health consequences and increasing death toll of COVID-19.”
Sept 11.2020: Dr Anthony Fauci explains scientists have got it wrong for many years, that aerosolised particles can linger in the air much longer than previously thought, and singing and speaking play a significant role in transmission.
Seattle company says its spray treatment could make cloth masks more effective against COVID-19
A small Seattle startup is hoping to boost the performance of cloth masks with a spray coating that uses minute electrical charges to capture viral particles and prevent them from passing through the fibers.
Doctors and Engineers Speak the Same Language on COVID-19 Transmission
It's as much about engineering as it is about epidemiology.
Back in March, the World Health Organization (WHO) took a strong position that COVID-19 was not airborne, that it was transmitted through droplets that "are too heavy to hang in the air. They quickly fall on floors and surfaces." This has been the foundation of their advice ever since, and the logic behind the 6-foot social distancing.
But also since March, the building scientists and engineers who deal with air movement have been saying that this is not correct, that there is a long history of studying how viruses move, and they are carried in the air a lot further than 6 feet.
Scientific evidence supports aerosol transmission of SARS-COV-2
Many guidelines still advocate the surgical mask which is not actually designed or approved for respiratory protection. The best available data on beta coronaviruses show superior protection offered by N95 respirators compared to surgical masks
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Meet UVMask, the next-generation reusable air purification and anti-pollution face mask with the most powerful UV-C technology on the market. Equipped with a passive air filter, and a ground breaking patent-pending Sterile-Vortex active purification, it filters the air in real-time, providing 6-hour protection. As you breathe, the replaceable high-efficiency N95-equivalent air filter removes most pollution and allergens. The air is then sent through a patent-pending ultra-high intensity UV-C Vortex which increases purification in real time. This defence system provides a total-filtration in under 0.1 seconds.
Acknowledge airborne transmission is main route
“So, here we are again. The most important aspect is acknowledgement at the top level in Australia that airborne transmission is a main route of transmission in general. This is the golden rule: hazard, not recognised [will] never be controlled and they are stubbornly refusing to recognise this hazard,” Professor Morawska said.
“[Airborne transmission] has been rejected, rejected and rejected, even though it is so obvious.
400 Australian experts ask for urgent action re aerial transmission
"This open letter signed by 400+ HCW & Experts was sent to the prime minister, federal health minister, state premiers and health ministers, federal / State CMO's and the members of AHPPC, CDNA, ICEG asking for urgent coordinated national action on aerosol transmission of Covid19".
Addressing airborne pathogens further reduces the risk of transmitting the virus.
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a lot of talk about hand hygiene, PPE and surface disinfection, but what about the air in which the aerosolized virus travels before it lands on surfaces? You need that to be clean, too.
Air cleanliness is all about risk mitigation, and it's something you should constantly monitor. Stephanie Taylor, MD, M. Arch., CIC, the CEO of Taylor Healthcare Commissioning, says you should focus on these factors:
Relative humidity.?This is by far the most important aspect of helping to prevent COVID-19 spread, as well as surgical site infections, says Dr. Taylor, who recommends your entire building stay within 40% to 60%. "In terms of human health, we do best in that range," she explains. "Pathogens are least infectious in that humidity zone." A corresponding benefit is that cells around surgical incisions are less likely to become damaged in air that isn't too dry. Also, says Dr. Taylor, you're supporting everyone's respiratory immunity, keeping mucus in airways hydrated, ensuring cilia can function and facilitating production of the protective protein interferon.
Air filtration. Dr. Taylor recommends MERV 13 middle-efficiency filtration throughout the building, with higher-efficiency HEPA filters in ORs. This can address concerns that COVID-19, a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus, could travel through your HVAC system. "Viral RNA has been recovered from HVAC systems, but the jury remains out on how infectious it might be," says Dr. Taylor. "We still need more testing and study."
Air exchanges. Current recommendations suggest performing 15 to 22 room air changes per hour in your ORs, says Dr. Taylor. However, this must be done in coordination with keeping relative humidity in the 40% to 60% sweet spot. "If the air is really dry and you have 30 air changes an hour, you'll actually have more particles in the air than if you have proper humidity and a lower air change rate," explains Dr. Taylor. "At 40% to 60% relative humidity, you can reduce your room air change rates and save energy, too."
Supplemental technology. Hydrogen peroxide vapor, aerosolized hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light (UVC) can bolster your clean-air efforts. Although UVC is often thought of in terms of portable robots, Dr. Taylor believes it also could be effective as a fixed presence in ductwork, such as around cooling coils where biofilm could form. One caveat: "We're beginning to see viruses and bacteria that have developed resistance to ultraviolet light," she says.
By employing all of these air cleanliness tools in concert, you can best mitigate risk of COVID-19 spread and make your environment as safe as possible, says Dr. Taylor.
cleanairtas note: Don't send hydrogen peroxide up through a/c ducts when the rooms are occupied. Ventilate afterwars.
Ten scientific reasons in support of airborne transmission of
Reducing airborne transmission of virus requires measures to avoid inhalation of infectious aerosols, including ventilation, air filtration, reducing crowding and time spent indoors, use of masks whenever indoors, attention to mask quality and fit, and higher-grade protection for health-care staff and front-line workers.
It's well overdue for the Australian Health Dept covid-19 guidelines to recommend fitted N95/P2 masks for all potential/actual covid settings i.e. not just during 'aerosolising procedures'.
Commercial aircraft continue to fly, with no contaminated air warning systems to inform passengers and crews when the air they are breathing is contaminated.
Captain Tristan says the air onboard passenger planes is contaminated because of ‘bleed air’, which brings air in through the compression section of the engines, or from the auxiliary power unit, a small engine at the tail of the aircraft. He says it is not filtered and has been known to be contaminated with jet engine oils and other fluids.
Can airborne pollen help spread SARS-CoV-2?
There appears to be a correlation between high concentrations of airborne pollen and high rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2, which is the virus that causes COVID-19.
A new computer model suggests that tree pollen could facilitate the transmission of the virus in a crowd of people gathered outdoors.
The model assumes that the virus can hitch a ride on pollen grains, though there is currently no direct evidence that this can happen.
An alternative explanation for the correlation between pollen levels and COVID-19 is that immune reactions to pollen can make individuals more susceptible to infection.
There is consistent, strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 spreads by airborne transmission.
"Although other routes can contribute, we believe that the airborne route is likely to be dominant. The public health community should act accordingly and without further delay.”
A different approach:
Everyone eligible for a vaccine should be getting it. All adults and children above the age of two should wear masks in school buildings and during school activities.
School divisions must provide adequate space and ventilation for everyone to study and to do their jobs safely.
A dedicated quarantine station is nothing new - Bruny Island Quarantine Station
"The tiny island located off Tasmania’s south-east coast has played a significant role in Australia’s history as its isolation made it the perfect location for quarantine. The word is derived from the Italian words quaranta giorni, which means 40 days, the amount of time ships were usually required to sit at anchor before landing to prevent the spread of diseases such as typhoid. From 1884, passengers arriving in Tasmania had to be disease-free before they were allowed into the general community. Instead of being confined to a ship, they served out their isolation period and underwent health checks ashore at Bruny Island Quarantine Station, which remains on the island today."
31.7.2021- Face masks
Find information about wearing a face mask in Victoria.
When do I need to wear a face mask?
“Anyone aged 12 years and over must wear a fitted face mask indoors and outdoors whenever they leave their home, unless a lawful exception applies.”
Download the instruction page here
This is confusing because it was determined earlier that surgical masks do not filter the virus and can leak inwards and outwards around the edges, and that cloth masks or face-fitting KN95/N95/P2 respirator masks should be worn because if worn correctly they mate-to-the-face.
The 60-Year-Old Scientific Screwup That Helped Covid Kill.
- by wired.com 13.5.2021
"All pandemic long, scientists brawled over how the virus spreads. Droplets! No, aerosols!
At the heart of the fight was a teensy error with huge consequences."
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We studied how to reduce airborne COVID spread in hospitals.
Here’s what we learnt - 16.8.2021 The Conversation
Aerosol transmission of COVID-19 remains a very real and ongoing problem.
The heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in hospitals, like most public indoor spaces, are built for comfort and energy efficiency, not for infection control (aside from purpose-built isolation areas).
School openings so far reveal science is right - masking works
- CNN 17.8.2021
A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that other mitigation measures - such as physical distancing and handwashing - are “insufficient by themselves” in curbing the pandemic without mask use, too
SARS-Cov-2RNA found on particulate matter of Bergamo in Northern Italy.
· COVID-19 burden seems more severe in areas with high concentrations of PM.
· Particulate matter is already known to have negative effects on human health.
· This is the first evidence that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be present on PM, thus
suggesting a possible use as indicator of epidemic recurrence.
Airborne transmission of respiratory viruses.
A detailed study
The authors suggest that airborne transmission may be the dominant form of transmission for several respiratory pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, and that further understanding of the mechanisms underlying infection from the airborne route will better inform mitigation measures.
Respirators and masks:
Health authorities know what a respirator is, but why not for the general public call them respirator masks to stop the misunderstanding / confusion?
Why admitting COVID is airborne is so hard
The evidence that Covid-19 spreads through the air has been there since early in the pandemic - in a Seattle choir, a Chinese restaurant, an Arkansas prison. And “Covid is Airborne” scientists have from around the globe who specialize in airborne contaminants have been pleading with authorities to tell the world, holding symposiums and writing editorial after editorial.
I See You but I Don’t: How Masks Alter Human Connection
They can disrupt our ability to communicate and connect. But there are ways to overcome a mask’s necessary downsides.
The Outstanding Physics of N95 Masks
N95 masks are not just a sieve or strainer
A good video explaing just how N95's filter.
New face mask prototype can detect Covid-19 infection
Engineers at MIT and Harvard have designed a prototype face mask that can diagnose the person wearing the mask with Covid-19 within about 90 minutes. The technology can also be used to design wearable sensors for a variety of other pathogens or toxic chemicals.
Exciting study of COVID-19 infected people in a room.
We recruited 11 participants that were diagnosed with COVID-19 and studied each for 3 days in a controlled chamber with multiple independent variables. We collected more than 2500 biological samples, particulates, and CO2 in near field (1.2 m) and far field (3.5 m) per each trial.
Each participant conducted a cough test, speak test, and speak loudly test at the beginning of each day, followed by routine trials where participants conducted regular office activities under different outdoor air exchange rates, in-room filtration, and relative humidity levels.
Real-time viral and pathogen detection in the air.
Designed to advise you of viruses in the air below transmission levels
Plug it in turn it on and it will let you know.
Engineering guidelines for healthcare facilities:
HYPERLINK "https://www.vhba.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-06/VHHSBA-Engineering-Guidelines-for-Healthcare-Facilities-Vol-1-Fundamentals-20200530.pdf" \\t "_blank"